"A neighborhood, as generally understood by city planners, has two aspects: it is a bounded geographic unit, and it is a social unit characterized by a sense of community and represented by a neighborhood association. The two are assumed to have the same boundaries. The concept of coterminous social and geographic units is shared by other disciplines: psychologists study neighborhoods to find out what qualities are associated with a sense of community; sociologists to learn about the social structure of communities; and urban designers to find what elements contribute to the appearance of community. Practical experience, however, suggests that the concept of co-terminous areas does not explain the way things are. This paper reports on a series of in-depth interviews with leaders of neighborhood associations in thirty-eight neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Respondents were asked about the concerns, activities and operations of their associations, and about their own membership in other associations. The interviews were conducted in 1994-1995. The purpose of a neighborhood association, according to the respondents, is to address local problems. Sometimes these problems are handled by the organization, sometimes by individuals in the organization, and sometimes by calling on outsiders for help. In addition to the neighborhood association there are, however, a number of other groups and coalitions that also address local problems. although their area of concern may be limited to part of the neighborhood or extend over many, neighborhoods. A neighborhood community includes the network of affiliations that address problems in the neighborhood. At any one time and with respect to any one issue, some of the components of a community network are active and others are passive. Neighborhood planners who identify "the community" as their client, must recognize this network of affiliations. This may extend beyond the borders of the locality. The social and physical extent of neighborhood may, then, not coincide."