"As the Holocaust moves from lived experience to historical phenomenon, there have been an increasing number of holocaust memorials constructed or planned around the world. They serve to mourn victims, as commemoration in the absence of individual cemeteries and tombstones, as indictment against crimes against humanity, as homage to martyrs or as celebration of heroism. James Young curator of an exhibition on 'The Art of Memory: Holocaust memorials in History" at the Jewish Museum of New York (1994) argues that public memorials function to create "public memory." Monuments are designed and erected by diverse sources for disparate reasons. Governments sponsor Holocaust memorials to honor lost citizens, alleviate culpability or to "explain a nation's past to itself." Some are constructed as historical markers while others are conceived of as tourist attractions. Others are built by survivors of the communities destroyed so that many represent Jewish sponsorship and planning, evidencing the traditional Jewish directive to remember. Holocaust memorials are found around the globe, designed and built to honor Jews and non_Jews. Monuments have been erected in those nations from which victims were deported to concentration camps, in cities where survivors resettled, and at those sites which were the scenes of genocide. Nations which were invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany which became the sites of deportation such as the Netherlands and France provide a very different perspective on who and why monuments have been installed, raising troublesome debate over resistance, compliance and collaboration. The project initiators and their goals are as varied as the artistic vision of those employed to design memorials, how close they come to attaining their goals is influenced, perhaps determined by, decisions of policy makers with regard to the sites made available for public display. The one constant found in the process of memorial creation is a degree of conflict or disagreement with regard to design, placement, those people and actions to be commemorated and intended audience for the memorial. This paper will provide an approach to the study of memorials placed in public spaces around the world and will illustrate through projects in Berlin, Paris and Amsterdam. It is particularly concerned with the influence of time and policy that results in shifting meanings derived from planning and design."