"As policy makers and public officials attempt to revitalize cities, efforts have been made to preserve, rehabilitate, create new cities resembling the old or build a renew. Praiseworthy goals include social and economic benefits, enhanced quality of life, reduced crime rates and safety. But these goals are not achieved without change and upheaval for some. In Postmodern Urbanism Nail Ellin wrote "gentrification usually results in the displacement of people and businesses because it increases land values and rents even when occurring in already abandoned sections of town, due to the 'domino' as 'spillover' effect. In some instances, this has occasioned the rise of counter-gentrification movements organized by people living and working in the area, who ironically make similar pleas for preservation." Often the needs and pocketbooks of immigrants and minorities inhabiting urban environments are distinct and in conflict with the vision of others. The process of urban renewal and gentrification may come either to the benefit of or at the expense of the needs of other inhabitants. Can populations co_exist or must one population displace another in this process? How is place to be revitalized without excluding, rejecting and evicting those individuals who are the present and make this their home? This symposium will explore theories, compare cross_country evidence and examine case studies in which conflict over the built environment arises."