In the past four years we have been working in a line of research on ageing and independent living. The central theme in this study was the concept of adaptation. Adaptation is defined as the dynamic process of minimizing the discrepancy between an actual and a desired state or situation, and is a concept that deserves the interest of researchers from both the field of environment-behaviour and the field of gerontology. The aim of this work was to study the role of the older individual as an active agent in the process of independent living. This process is regarded as an adaptation process in which the role of the individual, the various adaptive strategies and important determinants can be studied. In a rather eclectic way, knowledge has been combined from research fields in coping and adaptation, perceived control and self-efficacy, problem-solving, motivation theory, and participatory design, all in relation to ageing. A number of studies have been performed, ranging from quite fundamental, theory-based experiments, to an explorative survey and a more applied interactive training session. During this presentation I plan to discuss the most recent findings in this line of research and the validity of the various research methods used in this study, especially in relation to older research participants and environment-behaviour research in general. Implications for both research and practice will be discussed.