"One of the major confusions in the man-environment literature is the lack of distinction between applied research and consultancy. A more fruitful way of thinking about these different activites is to recognise that "applied" is really the opposite to "fundamental" whereas it is useful to distinguish "consultancy" from "academic" activities. This distinction reserves the label of "Consultant" for someone who is part of the decision making process. In this respect I see little difference between consultancy and action research, except that the latter is often on a much larger scale than the former."