"Any aspect of the South African situation can hardly be explained without reference to the apartheid grand scheme which shaped the society and its environment. Although migration occurs in many parts of the world, its character in South Africa is shaped by local policies and conditions of life. The focus of the paper is on intrarural and rural-urban migrations with their consequent effects on the environment. While voluntary rural migration is noted, the paper emphasizes the results of state-induced migration. Rural-urban migration is discussed in the context of urbanization in the homelands and in what was considered "white" South Africa. The paper argues that while the livelihood of rural blacks was disrupted by, inter alia, the state, existing urban planning policies were designed for two different societies with different environmental conditions. Consequently, conditions in areas occupied by blacks remained poor and the environment deteriorated. It is concluded that problems affecting rural and urban environments emanating from the rural-urban migration process require planning and development strategies which impact on rural and urban areas simultaneously."