"Cultural landscapes are expressions of local and regional identities. Ingerson (2000a) argued that virtually all landscapes have cultural associations because all landscapes have been affected in some way by human action or perception. In 1992, the World Heritage Convention (WHC) became the first international legal instrument to recognize and protect cultural landscape. According to WHC (2001), "the term 'cultural landscape' embraces a diversity of manifestations of the interaction between humankind and its natural environment...They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal." In the 1990s, the study of cultural landscape shifted from a focus on vernacular landscape to the emphasis on the multiple and often conflicting meanings of land (Ingerson, 2000b). According to Groth (1997: 6), the contrast of diversity and uniformity frame essential and continuing debates within cultural landscape interpretations."