"This report describes the history of housing movements in Russia as part of the development of local democracy. The last few years has brought new market-oriented types of organisations of residents and new types of participation in improving the living envronment. Our own "Ladder of Participation" (from letters and complaints, which was the most widespread form of participation in the former Soviet Union, to the creation of the City Public Council on Housing Policy and the organisation of election campaigns), also means "Steps to Democracy". The report is based on 60 in-depth interviews with leaders of housing movements and officials, conducted as a part of an international research project, "Housing and Environmental Movements - Changing Social Citizenship in Russia, Estonia and Hungary"."