In recent years wilderness has become a designated land use and is getting more and more important in Switzerland. The decisions in favor of wilderness lead to conflicts between nature conservationists, wilderness users as well as inhabitants of these regions. A new social science research project located at WSL's Section Landscape and Society is focussing on the populations attitudes towards nature and wilderness and their influence on the acceptance of different types of wildlands and on wildland management. The poster will present the most important research questions, the methods used to answer these questions and the first results of the study.