Criticism of the positivist approach, the dominant paradigm for conducting science for many years, has intensified in the social sciences during the last two decades and there has been growing debate on alternative approaches that promise to overcome its weaknesses. This debate is of particular interest in the field of psychology. The questioning of positivism focuses on: the paradigm's ontological foundations, i.e., its conception of reality; its epistemological foundations, or its conception of the relationship between the researcher and the research subject; and its methodological foundations, or the metatheoretical framework which guides research. The new proposals that have emerged, such as the social constructionism and critical theory paradigms, as well as new perspectives such as that of feminism, have introduced conceptions radically different from those of positivism in each of those three dimensions. In particular, a different way of doing research known as qualitative research, which has a certain tradition in anthropology and sociology, has begun to take root as a legitimate alternative for the production of systematic knowledge in the rest of the social sciences.