In New York City the terrorism and destruction have left some of the businesses and housing empty and uninhabitable. Although many of the residential buildings have been declared safe, residents are reluctant if not unwilling to go back to them. Occupants of nearby office buildings also are loathe to return. Their homes and offices are tainted with the dust and the memories of the 11 September 2001 event, stripping them of the qualities that characterize safe places.