The response to the noise environment is a complex one which depends not only on the intensity of the noise, but also on other non-acoustic variables (personal, attitudinal, contextual ...) which act as filters which modify the perception of the physical signal. Despite the importance of the non-acoustic variables in determining the annoyance, investigators have paid scant attention to them. The work presented is an endeavour to arrive at a comprehension of the response to this factor of the environment. To accomplish this, a study was carried out aimed at evaluating the influence of the personality and cognitive variables in the perception and evaluation of the noise environment. In the study 75 students from 4th and 5th grade primary school (8-10 years) participated, together with 15 teachers, all exposed in their school to high levels of traffic (road and rail) and industrial noise.