This study attempts to assess the impact of religious market diversity on motherhood orientation at the societal level. Motherhood orientation refers to the importance people place on women having children as a means of fulfillment. Since virtually all of the major religions emphasize the need to procreate, it is clear that motherhood orientation is one of the values that constitute religious culture. In a sense, low levels of importance placed on women having children reflects low levels of influence of religion on reproduction and gender expectations. Although motherhood orientation is an interesting phenomenon, we are using it here not primarily for its own sake, but as a means to evaluate further three approaches to or theories of religion. These approaches are 1) the rational choice or supply-side theory, 2) the religious hegemony or cultural integration theory, and 3) the theory of global religious culture.