"The Hulme estate in Manchester has been rebuilt twice in the space of thirty years. A dense area of nineteenth century workers housing, near the central canals, railways and warehouses of Britain's first Industrial City, was demolished in the period just before and after the Second World War. When funds became available to rebuild in the 1960s and 70s, the architects designed a version of the Radiant City: system built high rise social housing with deck access and complete vehicle-pedestrian segregation. But this rapidly became as much a slum as its predecessor, and it was also dangerous because of the rising drug traffic. In the 1990s, this utopia was replaced by an example of the New Urbanism: low rise, mixed tenure, mixed use and with "old-fashioned" streets where cars and people could mingle. But this is still a uniform approach. It might prove just as bad as the previous versions. This paper will try to work out how we can find out. "