This paper explores, through an empirical study and the use of structural equation modeling undertaken in Guildford, England, how differences in social cohesion, residential satisfaction, social and place identification in different neighbourhoods with different social histories, housing types and socio-economic composition may lead to different attitudes to environmental sustainability. The results show that while place-related social identity may be important, it is the combination of factors - how processes such as social cohesion and residential satisfaction interact and work together with identity processes - that leads to specific environmental attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. As one would hypothesise within a transactionalist perspective, the role of place identity as well as social cohesion may vary depending on the nature of the population as well as the nature of the environment.