This symposium explicates the relationship between the city, mainly the metropolis, as an historically grown and continually changing ensemble of meaningful objects, places, and relations, on the one hand, and the ways its inhabitants accept or ignore, maintain and change, interpret and live urban values and meanings. Hence, urban research has to account for the spiritual and ideological aspects of the urban experience which task, methodologically, suggests a phenomenological, transactional, or constructivist approach.