"In any decision-making process conflicts may arise between the participants. The situation may be one of cooperative conflict, generating out of the real or perceived incompa tibility of means toward a mutual goal; or it may be one of competitive conflict, arising from the real or percei ved incompatibility of goals among parties (Horai, 1977). Where the decision-making process deals with a design or planning issue, conflicts may arise on a number of diffe rent levels - between individual and group goals, between group and community or national goals, between professio nals and laymen, between those involved in the process and those not, and so forth. One critical question is whether whatever conflicts exist are based upon "real" incompatibi lity of means or goals, or upon misperceptions and misun derstandings. Such misperceptions are more likely to occur when there is little contact between the various groups or individuals involved in the process, or affected by it."