A number of authors have maintained that in certain cases and certain respects there are discrepancies between the ideas of architects and planners on the one hand, and the needs and preferences of users of the built environment on the other hand. These ideas of the designers are not only expressed in their publications and speeches, but also in their plans and in the buildings and spaces that are con structed in accordance with these plans. The discrepancies in question have been pointed at, e.g. by Chombart de Lauwe in France, by the social psychologist Wentholt and myself in the Netherlands, and by Michelson in North America.