"Host industrialized nations have developed programs of housing constructed to serve the needs of older people. Over the past decade a subvariety of such purpose-built housing that builds in supportive services, in addition to the primary shelter, has appeared in increasing numbers - "congregate housing" in the United States, "foyers-lognents" in France, -and undoubtedly other names in other countries. However, the bulk of all housing built for older people nay be characterized as "independent housing." that is, housing that presumes most occupants to be reasonably healthy, mobile, and able to perform their own self-maintaining tasks such as shopping, cooking, and housekeeping. In the United States about 700,000 older people live in such independent housing. Unlike people in the middle-adulthood period, those in the later years can expect to decline in health as they near the end of their lives. The hospital or nursing home is - often their final residence. However, there is a period from the time of their beginning biological decline and the time when -institutional care is sought during which the needs of these tenants may be poorly met in independent housing. In kahana's terms, the congruence between person and environment is disturbed. In the absence of the built-in services that are an essential component of congregate housing, tents with beginning impairment may have difficulty doing their shopping, keeping up their apartments, and sometimes performing basic self-care - such as bathing o dressing. Thus they may be at risk of having to, go to an institution, where similar tenants in supportive housing could have enough services provided on the site to postpone their entry into an institution."