"In order to guide visually impaired persons safely through difficult spaces, highly schematized, second-generation tactile maps have been developed which depict in relief fashion the major route configurations in a building or outdoor area. The raised images of a path and the symbols for major items of interest along it (e.g., public phones, restrooms, intersections, elevators, and stairs) can be felt with the fingertips of the person studying the map. This type of map is useful for familiarization with an area that is new to a traveler by helping to create a mental image of where things are and how they are spatially related to each other. These simplified, topological maps are made possible through their combination with an electronic safe-tracking system which follows the route configuration shown. A wire loop antenna spaced 20 cm apart in the ground or floor surface emits an AN band radio signal received by the cane only when its tip is within about 20-40 cm of the wire in the ground, thus permitting the user to closely follow a track by tapping or swaying the cane left and right in a rhythmic fashion. The radio signal can be felt by placing the index finger on a vibrator just beneath the handle of the cane. When activated, point source beacons positioned along pathways in key locations indicate to the visually impaired traveller landmarks through voice synthesis devices (like talking clocks) broadcasting within a 2meter range messages like "elevator right," etc."