"The papers in this session are of two types, with a possible middle ground. Working with Mm Byung-Ho on his Ph.D. dissertation in architecture, we have to come to the realization there appear to be two main approaches to resolving the utilization question. Two-community theory is based on the notion that research and practice are separate (read: "transfer," "communication," "information requirements," "channels of imfluence," "use of knowledge," "informing design," "the assembly of knowledge." and "design guides"). One-community theory, on the other hand, is based on the notion that research and practice are integrated (read: "participation," "share experiences and negotiate priorities," "direct involvement of the public," and "organized and participatory approach"). The advantages and limitations of these two approaches will be explored by reference to the work presented in the papers of this symposium."