This paper considers the changing notion of landscape in contrast to environment using the avenue as an element of the landscape. It explores the avenue from the Renaissance to the 18th century in Europe and Britain and then moves to the New World. It particularly examines the changing notions of the avenue in Australia contrasting the early notions of baroque idealism with the eventual ordered grid, developed by surveyors. The notion of avenue and the tree species used are considered in terms of their meaning to the community revealing some interesting paradoxes in social attitudes to environment and landscape.