Resident participation has been a central aspect of neighborhood rehabilitation programs around the world in the last three decades. A number of general issues regarding the principle of participation and its functioning within this context, can be identified. Two such issues are addressed in this paper: (1) Representative vs direct participation. Can anyone represent anyone else? Does one need to participate oneself in order to benefit? (2) Which is more important the process of participation or its product /outcome? Results of a four year comprehensive evaluation study of Israel's Project Renewal are the main context for discussion of these issues.