The aim of this research is two-fold. On the one hand, it has a descriptiveaspect, in which it shows the influence of town planning carried out in Mad-rid throughout the twentieth century on the image the inhabitants have ofthe city. The second aim is an endearvour to show how certain urban struc-tures are frameworks around which the cognitive map of the city is con-structed. The sample on which the research is based consist of several hundred inhab-itants of Madrid, aged between 18 and 70, of both sexes and residing in dif-ferent pans of Madrid. The methods used were two questionnaires: One consisting of free recallwhere the subject is required to differenciate between centre and outskirts,In order to distinguish two significantly different realities of the city, froma perceptive point of view. The second questionnaire requires that the sub-ject estimate the distance between different places in the city, which formthe main urban structure of the city designed in the course of twentieth century. Both tests were carried out at the same time, but separately. The results show the image that the inhabitants of Madrid have of their city,that is to say, the elements of the city which give its shape. At the sametime, the Influence of socio-demographic variables such as sex, age, place of residence, etc. can also be observed. On a second level, the perceptive distortions that the inhabitants of Madrid have of the urban structure whic-forms the centre of the city are also considered.