What are the aesthetic and cultural precedents generating continuity of openspace planning and landscape design in a country with only two hundredyears of European settlement where the existing Indigenous people main-tained a nomadic culture using the whole continent as skilfully managed openspace?This paper will describe the influences on an evolving twentieth centurylandscape design philosophy in Australia. It will explore the interactions ofpolitical ideologies, social issues and aesthetic precedents which have gen-erated a twentieth century design approach to open space planning and de-sign. This interaction reflects an interesting interplay between 'old world'philosophies as exponded by European and British town planners of thetwentieth century and 'new world' ideologies from North America with par-ticular reference to the City Beautiful Movement and the environmentalmovement of the 1960s. As well, the significance of the indigenous land-scape as revered open space, a reaction to the previous century's abuse, isconsidered.