It has become Increasingly recognised that attitudional and organizationalfactors contribute to accidents in a number of contexts, including indus-trial plants and public places. It has been estimated by some authors thatwell over half of all industrial accidents have their aeitology in human andorganizational processes. It is also apparent that numerous environmentalfactors, which provide the physical context of accidents anddisasters, alsocontribute to their development. Following from this it can be argued thatcontrary to popular belief, accidents do not just happen, and that there is acomponent of Intention and design in the occurrence of many disasters andIndustrial accidents,An examination of a number of major fires and other disasters over the lasttewenty years, In several countries, shows that these became disastrous be-cause inappropriate actions continued to support conventional social and or-ganizational processes, and were also contributed to by pepole's cognitiverepresentations of the environmet and designs and strategies which failedto take these into account.In terms of public places this is illustarted by behaviour during theHillsborough Football ground disaster in 1989, in which 95 people werekilled, the King's Cross Underground Fire which darned the lives of 31people, and the Fire Valley Parade, Bradford City's football stadium wherethere were 56 fatalities.In each of these disasters the design of the physical environment and people'stransactions with it contributed to the scale of the tragedy. For example, thedesign of the Hillsborough stadium, and the inadequate and confusing signpositing, resulted in the football fans, in effect, being channelled into onarea of the ground where many ere crushed to dath. In the King's Cross fire alack of knowledge and understanding of the design and layout of the stationcontributed to the decisions of the British Transport Police who directed theevacuation, making wrong and ultimately fatal decisions. Further, at the Valey Parade disaster, there may have been reluctance on the part of sup-porters to move onto the football pitch when the fire began. This seems tohave also occurred at Hillsborough, but this time with the police being re-luctant in the initial stages to allow supporters off the terraces and onto thepitch. Social and organizational processes were also signifcant in each ofthese events.The importance of organizational and social processes in accidents canclearly be seen in industrial settings where these processes maintain ri-sky attitudes. In an attitude survey of 550 workers, drawn from 16 differ-ent plants on the same site of a heavy process industry, it was found that thecorrelation coefficients between attidinal messures and recorded accidentratios were as high as the reliability o fthe measures involved. Indeed, itwas found that expert rating of the intrinsic hazardousness o fthe plantscorrelated less highly with teh actual accident ratios than did many of theattitudendinal measures.The implications of this work is that safety training management shouldgive as much emphasis to the consideration of social processes as topresenting technical knowledge. Additionally, In planning for emergencies,people's psychololcal representations and understanding of the environmentshould be taken into account.