The study to be reported is part of a cross-cultural project involving Swe-den (in collaboration with A. Kuller), England (in Collaboration with B.Mikellides) and Turkey. In this presentation mainly the findings of theTurkish study are considered with occasional references to the Swedish case.As part of the Turkish study, in-depth interviews were carried out with448 males and females (55-71 years) who were under some kind of re-tirement scheme. In order to consider different living conditions samplewere selected from metropolitan areas, cities and small towns.The interviews considered the psysical, social and phychological character-istics of the retirees' life situations. In this paper current life situationsand attitudes of the Turkish respondents to institutional living are exam-ined; and differences in relation to sex, age, and developmental level of arealived are considered. Results indicate that the Turkish respondents' attitudestowards institutional living in general are negative: more so than that ofSwedes; however, they tend to become less negative with age and urbaniza-tion. With respect to psychological variables, a relatively positive attitudetowards institutional living seems related to feeling lonelier, having lessfrequent interactions with a smaller social network, having a negative atti-tude towards aging, and being less satisfied with one's life. Implications ofthe findings and prospects for the future are discussed.