After the establishment of the modern Turkish Republic in 1923, a rapidtransformation took place In various fields of life in Anatolia. Reforms havealtered the social and cultural institutions, developing a new mentality andspirit, raising the living standards of people. Paralleling this progress, es-pecially after the Second World War, a rapid urbanization took place withinthe country leading to dramatic changes in urban life-styles and physicalenvironments. -This paper deals with changes that have taken place in Kayseri. Kayseri, thehistorical Ceaserea, is a central Anatolian town that has lived through Ro-man, Arabic, Seljukid and Ottoman periods. Due to its strategic location andrich hinterland it had a significant role in Anatolia. Not less than this sig-nificance it had a tradition of house-building worthwhile to examine.The paper explains general characteristics of Kayseri houses and traditionalliving patterns. Houses are asymmetrically grown, unpretentious, inward-looking. They are composed of simple, pure, rectangular prisms, added orsuperimposed on each other with strong architectural expressions. Sum-mer-winter living differentiaton, gender and privacy due to Islamic rulesandits reflection on house design, differences between Christian and Muslimhouses are other Issues discussed.