Increasing attention has been called to the rapid deterioration of apartmentbuildings in Korean cities. While new construction of the apartments havebeen booming, a large part of the stock, 15 years or older, is given seriousconsideration for demolition and reconstruction. These considerations andthe actual rebuilding, however, are not justified by any potential dangers inthe building structure, critical defects of the apartment, or the incurablevulnerability to crime. Instead, demolition is planned by voluntary resi-dents full of complaints and dissatisfactions with their dwelling environ-ments.To understand the rapidity of the deterioration and its effects on residents,the apartment age and various social, managerial, physical factors were ex-amined in terms of their relationship to deterioration. The relationships ofthese factors and deterioration to residential satisfaction were investigated.The study sample consisted of 176 apartment sites with differing buildingages selected among the listed apartments in Seoul using the nonproportionalstratified sampling method. For each apartment, physical and functionalconditions of the site, building, and unit were measured by trained observ-ers using an observation checklist composed of 67 5-point scale, pretesteditems. These items were analyzed using principal component analysis andthe deterioration indices calculated. In parallel with the observation, a sur-vey was conducted including aquestionnaire and interviews of management staff and residents, which provided residents' sociodemographic data, eco-nomic features of the sample, maintenance information, residents' percep-tion of building functions and surrounding environments, and residentialsatisfaction indices (using a translated and pretested version of the measuredeveloped by Housing Research and Development at the University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign). The relationships among these study variables wereanalyzed using several parametric statistics of the SPSS/PC + statistica-program.Major findings of the study included: deterioration was strongly related tobuilding age, suggesting that building age can be a rule-of-thumb measurefor judging apartment deterioration. This correlation considerably in-creased in the sample of lower building height or smaller unit size. But de-terioration was not necessarily the function of building age, considering oldbut well repaired high-rise apartments for relatively high-income resi-dents, and markedly speedy deteriorations of many recent apartments forlow-income urbanites, poorly constructed and maintained. Theoretically, itwas suggested that construction and maintenance qualities are mediatingvariables and these variables vary to a large extent with economic factorssuch as resident's income and housing market value.With regard to residential satisfaction, the findings showed that about half ofthe residents were not satisfied and 56 percent wanted or planned to move.Residential satisfaction was significantly related to the apartment deterio-ration and the resident's attitude toward moving. Satisfaction was found to beinfluenced mainly by functional or environmental flaws that caused the res-idents' immediate inconveniences and discomfort. These defects occurredmainly due to the deterioration process and the design/construction that didnot meet the residents' expected living standards. Those variables first hy-pothesized as important but found not to be significantly related to satisfac-tion were architectural aspects (form, finish, size, and plan configuration),residents' socio-demographic variables (income, education, previous house,and family size), and the ownership (own or rent).These findings were discussed in relation to the past studies on the relatedsubjects and in terms of the implications for rehabilitation policy, apart-ment design, construction, and maintenance.