The aim of this paper is to portray the results of a survey which was car-ried out during the anlysis stage ofthe Istanbul Historic Peninsula Planningand Conservation Study (Ozde, 1988) with the objective of providing aphysical-spatial and socio-economic data base for the planning strategy.One of the major questions of the survey is to find out the inhabitants' degreeof avareness of the historic value of the houses they live in as well as theirattitude toward the conservation of historic houses and historic environ-ment.The paper is structured as follows:In the first part, the concept of urban censervation in Turkeystarting from1960's are analyzed and the results of two research projects carried out atIstanbul Technical University (Zeren 1981, 1989) are summarized. Then,the relationship between urban conservation and rapid urbanization is em-phasized by explaining standards and employment structure processes ofsquatter settlement formation,and deterioration and demolition of the housesat the historic core of the city.In the second part ofthe paper, the case of Historic Peninsula is taken as anexample ofthe process mentioned in the first part. Historic Peninsula ispresented In relation to Its' strategic location, and its' change of urban func-tions through history.In the third part, the findings ofthe survey (Erkut, 1988) are summarized.In order to do this, firstly the objective andthe method,thenthe sample casesare presented. Two cases from Eminonu District, namely the Quarters of Sultanahmet and SQleymaniye, and two cases from Fatih district, namely theQuarters of Kariye and Haydar are analyzed.The findings are given as per-centage distributions.The absolute number of housing units that have beensampled and analyzed are 82 from Kariye, 70 from Haydar, 61 from Sulta-nahmet and 34 from SQleymaniye. The findings are summarized under threegeneral headings.i. Findings related to the general profile ofthe physical environment and theresidential area,ii. Findings related to the socio-economic level of the residents,iii. Findings related to the public attitude towards the conservtion of histor-ic houses and environment.In the fourth and last part,the discussions and general conclusions of thestudy are presented.