This study is based on an analysis of the attitudes shown by the population ofneighbouring towns towards a Refuse Recycling plant (RP) which emits un-pleasant substances. We outline guidelines for a programme of encourage-ment of acceptance of the plant once the technical problems are solved.The RP was Inaugurated in 1987 in the outskirts of Barcelona and hasopened and closed repeatedly as a result of social pressure against it. A badsmell is claimed to be emitted. This pressure, however, differs in the twopopulation centers, which are equidistant from the plant. Faced with thisconfusing situation, and after various technical modifications, the entity re-sponsible for the plant commisioned this study.An interdisciplinary team linked to our program was formed. The work setfor the team was as follows:a)analysis of the impact on the environment involving description of: thegeneral setting of the RP, the process of waste treatment, atmospheric con-tamination in the area and Its sources, the working problems of an RP, andthe wind circulation in the area.b)study of the social context, the social groups and their characteristics,and the political and social leaders with explanations for the different beha-viour of the populations and ideas about social measures to be taken.In order to identify the attitudes of the affected populations we use semi-directed interview technique and then analysed the results qualitatively us-ing an Analyala of Thematic Content. Three types of attitudes became appar-ent, depending on the influence of political and economic variables. Thus wewere able to Identify conjunctural motivations that explain the differentlevels of civil action against the RP.