"Since its appearance, squatter housing in the "Third World" has attracted much attention, both in the academic and non-academic circles. Over the years, the once-indigenous squatter settlements in large cities of the peripheral capitalist countrieshave been undergoing transformation. This is the case in Turkey too. In Ankara, the capital of Turkey, as the city expands rapidly towards its peripheries, some of the gecekondu* settlements are transformed into apartment districts; some start to have multi-story reinforced concrete houses next to the "typical" one-story shanties; and some continue to maintain their initial rural appearances. Today more and more rural migrants are moving from gecekondus to apartment buildings that have replaced gecekondus. Those who move to apartments regard this move as a sign of being part of the city and a chance of integrating into the wider urban society. Those who are left behind in gecekondus experience the destruction of their social networks. While the gecekondu community receives new people moving into the gecekondus left by those who have moved into apartments, it is not the same any more. Changes the gecekondu community faces are more than that. As years pass, second- and third-generation migrants who have different life experiences and expectations from their parents and grandparents start to live in the city, many in gecekondus. And recent migrants who again have different experiences and expectations from early migrants move into gecekondus. This paper is based upon an ethnographic study carried out in 1988 and 1989 in a gecekondu settlement (Cukurca) in Ankara, Turkey, and in a newly developing apartment neighborhood (Bagcilar) which was a gecekondu settlement until a few years ago. In 1990 and 1991 several visits were again made to the research sites. Both of the sites are inhabited mainly by rural-urban migrants. During the research I rented a gecekondu and lived in Cukurca for five months. I also paid frequent visits to Bagcilar. I participated in people's daily activities. I asked questions and tape-recorded or wrote down their answers. I took photographs of people, their homes and their neighborhood. I kept a journal, taking down daily notes of my feelings, thoughts and observations. This paper first describes the two research sites, Cukurca and Bagcilar, and mentions their transformations over the years. It then proceeds with rural-urban migrants living at these sites, including the first- and secondgeneration as well as long-term and recent migrants. It looks at their relationship with the wider urban society and rural community-- their interactions with the city and the village, with the established city residents and rural migrants; their identities in terms of rural/urban and modern; and their conceptions of rural/urban and modern people. Within this framework, it investigates the meaning and impact of moving to apartments from gecekondus in the case of both those who move to apartments and those who stay in gecekondus, as well as their perceptions of gecekondus and apartments. *Gecekondu is the name given to squatter houses in Turkey."