"Kayseri, the old Roman Ceaserea, is a central Anatolian town that has lived through Roman, Arabic, Seljukid and ottoman periods. Due to its strategic location and,rich hinterland it had a significant role in Anatolia. After the First World War drastic changes occurred in demographic, social and economic lives of Turkish people. Especially the economic boom of the 1950's gave way to a fast urbanization leading to dramatic changes in urban life-styles and physical environments. Paralleling this, Kayseri Municipality has enacted various master plans in 40 years; each imposing a grid-iron layout upon and around the medieval-type old town, to create a so-called "modern" city at the expense of destroying most of its historical quarters. The paper aims at summarizing some important changes in the demographic and physical form of the city since the Roman times and discussing details of demographic, social, cultural and economic dimensions of a metamorphosis that occurred in the last 40 years in Kayseri."