During the 19th century, the European provinces of the polyethnic Ottoman Empire were dismantled and a number of new national states were created in the Balkan peninsula: Greece (in the southern provinces) in 1828, Romania, Serbia and Bulgaria between 1829 and 1878, Albania and modern Greece in the 1910s and up to 1922. A moment of calm in the turn of the century was followed by successive wars, such as the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913), the first World War (1914-1918) and the Asia Minor Campaign (1920-1922), leading to frontier changes, extensive damage to existing towns and countryside, and millions of refugees in search of new homes. It is then easy to understand that the establishment of a new network of settlements within national boundaries acquired a distinct importance, and the reconstruction of cities was placed in the heart of modernizing programmes of the states involved. The reasons for this effort were practical and functional, as well as ideological. Not only should the new state motivate production and economic activity, but it should emphasize a national identity by effacing all memories of Ottoman rule, still persistant in urban fabrics (Ottomans occupied the Balkans for four to five centuries). At the same time the Ottoman Empire was driven to modernize and reform its traditional theocratic institutions, following the model of the European states of the time. It has been argued that the exact terms of the 'westernization' processes adopted by different states in the area are not easy to define. In this essay we will carry on further the work that was presented in Richmond, in 1991, and examine the design and legislation used to implement specific planning projects, such as: the planning of new cities in Romania and the 'europe anization' of Serbian cities in the 19th century, the modernization of Ottoman cities during the Tanzimat era, the reconstruction and de-islamization process in Bulgaria after 1880, the creation of new towns and reconstructions after total destruction in Greece in the 19th and early 20th century.