Cities such as Manchester and Athens represented types of civilisation which have now disappeared. A new one is emerging. Sociologists have valued cities for the anonymity they provided but they have also been seen as arenas for conflict. They are now seen as being constructed by myths and histories, social systems and individual perceptions. Twelve chapters in this part of the book consider how the public participates in these processes. They report on research from all continents, covering the urbanisation and modernisation of developing countries as well as the interactions between bureaucratic and market forces in the developed world. Contributions are made to the scientific literature using both positivist and phenomenological paradigms. The final chapter of this part of the book reports on a bibliometric review which suggests how the literature of this sub-discipline may develop.