"In 1966, in the midst of America's urban chaos, the United States Congress passed PL89-754, The Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act, which stated partially that "bold new innovative programs... must be designed to 1) renew entire slum neighborhoods by the combined use of physical and social development programs and 2) increase substantially the supply of standard housing of low and moderate cost" (United States Congress, 1966). Each city designated for the program was to choose its own area to renew based upon the criteria of the program. New York City designated Harlem-East Harlem as one of the areas.' In New York City, the Model Cities program was under the aegis of the Housing and Development Administration, a newly created "super agency" developed in a major effort to deliver housing to the city. New York City was clearly in need of an improved housing stock. In 1968, Paul Davidoff reported that New York required "one million new and rehabilitated low- and moderate rent units" (Davidoff, 1968, p.11). The rate of new construction, while sufficient to meet middle- and upper- income demand... fails to provide new units, or liberate enough existing units through market operation, to satisfy more than a small portion of the city's need for low-income families" (Davidoff, 1968, p.12)."