This study investigated inhabitants' representations of the urban environment in three neighbourhoods of Rome. They differed for location, time of settlement, degree of stratification and consolidation, use type, lifestyle and characteristic of urban spaces. Participants (N = 173) filled in a questionnaire. It consisted of 1) verbal reports and maps about the significant places in their neighbourhood of residence, 2) evaluations of their neighbourhood of residence, of their ideal neighbourhood and of the entire city of Rome, 3) recognition of the neighbourhood boundaries and of the habitual paths in the neighbourhood. Results of multidimensional analyses and comparative tests showed the existence of systematic differences in the identification of the city, related to the different neighbourhood considered and to variables such as sex, age and length of residence.