Environmental values have been found to be a good predictor of environmental behavior in the West (e.g. Schultz & Zelezny, 1998). Past research on the values and environmental behavior relationship has been carried out predominantly in western cultures. This raises the general issue of environmental values and behaviors in other cultures, especially in a country like China which has a rich tradition concerning relationships with nature. At least two specific questions can be asked in relation to this general issue. First, it is not clear whether there is a set of environmental values and behavior specific to the culture and, if specific values and behavior do exist, how they are related to the sets of values and behaviors that have been used in previous research. Second, it is also not clear whether environmental values predict behaviors in a Chinese culture either the values and behaviors that have been used in previous research or values and behaviors specific to the culture. The first step of the research was to address the question of the structure of traditional Chinese environmental values and Taiwanese behavior related to their beliefs of nature. A survey of experts’ opinions in Taiwan was conducted by the authors (Kuo and Purcell, 2003) to identify whether there was a set of traditional Chinese environmental values and behaviors in ancient Chinese culture. A scale of traditional Chinese environmental values and behavior resulted from the study. This scale, combined with validated Western environmental values and behavior scales (e.g. Stern et al., 1999), was then used to examine the structure and the relationships between values and behavior in a number of social groups in Taiwan. Taiwan is a particularly interesting setting for such research as it suffers from environmental problems resulting from development. A particularly significant aspect of the research therefore is whether different groups in the society hold different environmental values and engage in different environmental behavior. The study to be reported represents the results of a survey study of the values and behavior of the architects in Taiwan. The group consisted of two subgroups-architectural postgraduate students and professional architects with 55 persons in each subgroup. The group was found to possess high to medium levels of most of the Chinese and Western environmental values (EV). Factor analysis of their values structure found three dimensions of traditional Chinese environmental values, i.e. general-environmental values (G-EV) (nature and social-altruism type), general values (GV) (self-monitoring type) and feng shui values and one dimension of Western environmental values, i.e. general-environmental values (nature, protection and social-altruism type). When the Chinese and Western values scales were combined, four dimensions of values: EV (nature type), GV (self-monitoring type), GV (social-altruism type) and EV (protection type) were identified.The architects were also found to be frequently engaged in most of the Chinese environmental behaviors, most of Western recycling behaviors, some simple lifestyle practices and green consumerism. They frequently showed a willingness to act for the environment. Factor analysis of their behavior structure revealed three dimensions of Chinese behavior (contact with nature, religious rituals and simple lifestyle practices) and four dimensions of Western behavior (green consumerism, domestic recycling and lifestyle change behavior, policy support and workplace recycling behavior). When Chinese and Western behavior scales were combined, the same factors were revealed with domestic recycling and lifestyle altering behavior and workplace recycling behavior merging into one factor (general recycling behavior). Multiple regression analyses found that traditional Chinese environmental values predicted Taiwanese simple lifestyle practices and religious rituals; Western values predicted green consumerism; composite Chinese and Western environmental values predicted, religious rituals, simple lifestyle practices and green consumerism. However, the predictive power was generally rather weak. Significant differences were found between the two subgroups in their environmental values and behavior. The results of the study show that not all the values predict all types of behaviors on the two subgroups. When assessing the role of values in predicting behavior, culture and sub-cultural differences need to be considered.