The author has inquired natural landscape cognition (Ohta, 2001) as part of the phenomenological approach to our cognition of living world. The present study is to expand the domain of investigation toward the cognition of residential environment. The participants were 12 women and 4 men. They ranged in age from 30 to 50 years old (mean 40.0, SD 6.3 years). Their places of origin were widely dispersed throughout Japan, from the north (Hokkaido prefecture) to the south (Miyazaki prefecture), although the largest group (9 participants) were born in Kanto district, i.e., in or around Tokyo. At the time of the study, they were all living in the Kanto district, i.e., 5 participants in Tokyo prefecture, 4 in Chiba, 3 in Kanagawa, 2 in Saitama, 1 in Ibaraki, and 1 in Tochigi. They lived in single-family houses (10 participants) or in apartments (6 participants). The living period in the dwelling house was from 0.5 to 26 years (mean 7.8, SD 5.8 years). The number of family members including the participant was from 1 to 5 (mean 2.5, SD 1.4). The author called at each participant between April 2000 and February 2001, and inquired by means of in-depth interviews how they think or feel about their residential environments. The interviews were carried out in participant’s home in order to let participants think afresh about their residential environment both inside and outside of home with their everyday life situation. The interview style was semi-structured, and questions were put mainly about the following: houses and places where he/she had lived from after birth to the present, structure and relationships of the family, the plan of the house, impression and evaluation of the house and the neighborhood, characteristics of the house and the region, behavior range in the region, hope or dream for house or residential place in the future, etc. The author also asked him/her to guide to the certain spots mentioned in the interview about where he/she held any special feelings, e.g., pleasing, hateful, nostalgic, and so on.After qualitative analysis, several main categories of cognitive aspects were extracted; Things, House, Family, Region, Memories, Landscape, Animals, Plants, Participant’s idiosyncrasies, etc. And a common structure in the cognition of residential environment was identified. That is, based on memories and experiences of each participant, he/she constantly compared the present home and region with those where he/she had lived or known. Through such comparison, participant’s feelings, impressions, and evaluations, etc. about his/her house and the region were developed. Participants had made more close relationship with their house or with the region through their various actions upon the house (e.g., reforming, cleaning, gardening, etc.) or in the region (e.g., jogging, walking, shopping, cooperative works with neighborhood, etc.). It was also found that the relationships with his/her family or the viewpoints of family members greatly affected the very participant’s evaluation of dwelling. Special spots in the region enabled each participant to make sense out of the region, and also to deepen the relationship, for good or bad, with the region. Moreover, landscapes that could be seen at the outside or from inside of the house gave certain influence on the impression and the evaluation of dwelling. While participant’s garden tended to be stressful existence because he/she must keep them in good condition under pressure, the beautiful or preferable gardens in the neighborhood made him/her feel happy. Animals, especially dogs and cats kept as pets in the house, played an important role to help him/her feel more at home, like as reported by Smith(1994). On the other hand, old dogs kept in the neighborhood were often recognized as a symbol of the changes of town as time passes by. Norberg-Schulz (1971) proposed an idea of the levels of existential space from ‘the thing’ to ‘geography’ through ‘the house’, ‘the urban’, and ‘landscape’. The result of the present study also indicated that the cognition of residential environment consists of such several levels, i.e., from utensils or furniture to artificial or natural landscapes. Additionally, from the present result ‘home’ should be set as an upper category upon those categories extracted in the present study. That is, the concept and meaning of ‘home’ in participants could be interpreted as liquid that may exist across those subcategories, from thing to landscape, as pointed by Sixsmith (1986).