The main aim of this paper is to put into perspective and synthesize the Romanian studies regarding the People-Environment issue. The approach is chronological, structured on three historical and political periods: pre-communism, communism and post-communism. Taking into account the methodological frame of reference, most of the studies analyzed are using the sociological or anthropological approach. Other studies are belonging to the fields of architecture, cultural geography or psychology. Our attempt is to present the Romanian historical roots of the discipline and its actual institutional existence. Therefore we are discussing the goals, activities and main interests of the contemporary research centers that are focused on People-Environment issues: Life Quality Research Institute and Center for Psychological Studies and Research in Timisoara, Research Unit on People-Environment Studies.