This article examines spatial conditions of children’s autonomy of home-school travels. Children aged 10 to 12 years (n=83) shared out in 3 urban environments (A traditional site, and a mixed site closed to a traffic calming area in the center of Paris, a new-town in the suburb) were interviewed at school. They were individually asked (1) to sketch-map their home-school travel, (2) to draw their home-school travel on a map of the city, (3) to answer a questionnaire about the home-school travel. These methodological tools permitted to collect the Home-school spatial distances and the difficulty of cross-roads, which were measured and analysed via a Geographical Information System (GIS). The question of children escorting during home-school travel was extracted from the questionnaire and analysed in comparison with travel-distances and the difficulty of cross-roads and the cognitive map. Results show that parents-escorting for the home-school travel is more a question of spatial distance whereas peers–escorting, more habitual in the New-town, seems to be a factor of motivation and a factor of securisation. At the end we discuss the role of the environment and the structure of dangerous travel on the autonomy and the role of autonomous mobility on the structure of the cognitive map.