The Scandinavian collective housing model emerged as a result of pressure from women’s organisations, who saw collective housing as an instrument to reduce housework, which in turn was regarded as a precondition for women’s chances to uphold gainful employment while fulfilling family obligations. The later self-work model, where residents take turns in cooking, also aims at facilitating everyday life for its inhabitants, although not only for women. This house form can be seen as an example of a spatial structure that provides attractive intermediate spaces between private and public parts of the urban environment, which are both strengthened by patriarchal society (Woodward 1989; Nordic Council of Ministers 1991; Vestbro 1997; 2000).In the self-work model of collective housing all adults have to take turns in cooking. Research on collective housing confirms that the distribution of tasks between men and women are more equal than in other forms of housing. This conclusion is based on interviews and observations in some of the Swedish collective housing units built in the 1980s (Vestbro 2000). It is supported by the author’s personal observations from one of the self-work units. No systematic study has been made, however, of the division of everyday task in collective housing, except for a Danish study from the beginning of the 70s. This study did not cover collective housing of the kinds mentioned above, but only communes where small groups of people share a house or a big apartment. The study revealed equal distribution of tasks with respect to shopping, washing dishes, cleaning and child rearing, but not with respect to textile work, where females dominated, and not concerning woodworks or car repair, where men dominated (Christensen & Kristensen 1972).The present paper has the character of a pre-study for a more comprehensive research project aimed at addressing the issue whether the Scandinavian collective housing model actually promotes changes of gender roles towards equality and men’s emancipation. On the basis of current theories on forms of masculinity the paper tries to work out a conceptual model for a study of conflicts between gender roles in collective housing in Sweden. Useful material is found in the research overviews made by the Program on Men and Gender Equality of the Nordic Council of Ministers (Oftung 1998). An interesting question to explore is how communal cooking tasks and periods of “paternity leave” come into conflict with employer’s demands. Another research question is whether support from the collective may facilitate more emancipated forms of masculinity. Based on the author’s own participant observation in collective housing it is argued that this type of housing may be a tool to liberate men from stereotype gender roles imposed by patriarchal society. It is noted that male members are encouraged to recognise their “female” sides, such as showing feelings and being observant upon the well being of fellow residents. Besides the ideological and behavioural factors, the role of the design factors is discussed. One of the design factors is the degree of social control achieved through a tree-like room structure, where residents pass easily overviewed communal spaces on their way to their private apartments, as developed in Palm Lindén’s research on collective houses (1989;1992). Her thesis is based on the concepts of the theory of Space Syntax (Hillier and Hanson 1984).