Urbanization is occurring rapidly around the world, particularly in developing countries that are suffering from the brunt of its adverse effects. By 2030, urban areas in developing countries will need to accommodate a projected doubling of the urban population (World Bank 2002). Urban areas are potential dynamic engines of growth. Local governments need to take steps to make their cities more hospitable venues for economic growth (World Bank 2002). They must provide a good living and working environment. For this to occur they must have good infrastructure that needs to be managed responsibly if development is to be sustainable (World Bank 2002)In many developing countries, local authorities and public corporations normally provide the physical infrastructure, which is vital for economic growth and development, or they provide a conducive environment for others who provide some of it, particularly housing. However, urban infrastructure providers are failing to keep up with the rapid urbanization, adversely affecting the natural and the built environment and exacerbating poverty. This is because of various constraints that include: lack of finances, a lack of capacity, unnecessary political interference, haphazard and inefficient provision, etc. Kampala, Uganda’s capital city has not been spared. The planning and management of physical infrastructure is poor and uncoordinated, leading to inadequate and poorly maintained infrastructure. The problems are further complicated by the country’s complicated land tenure system and non-compliance with the planning by-laws. The country’s scarce resources are also being wasted by some of the infrastructure providers. For example, roads are provided with no plans for drainage, newly constructed roads are dug up by other infrastructure providers trying to provide their own services, etc. This makes one question the seriousness of the providers. The city has many poor roads, poor storm water drainage, poor garbage collection, slums, poorly planned and maintained open spaces, inadequate provision of water and sewerage facilities, etc. While the responsible parties are trying to address the problems, they still have a very long way to go.It is argued that some of the constraints faced by infrastructure providers can be handled, and that innovative methods and institutional arrangements can result in much better service provision even at low investment levels (World Bank 2000). Coping with infrastructure challenges, involves more than simple planning. It involves tackling inefficiency and waste, both in investment and in service delivery (World Bank 1994). This is a challenge for urban authorities in developing countries. Ways need to be found to ensure that infrastructure provision keeps pace with urban growth on a basis, which is financially and environmentally sustainable, and equitable.It should be acknowledged that to address these problems a combined effort of all the infrastructure providers and other stakeholders like the central government and the private sector, may be needed. While the involvement of the private sector is at the heart of the Uganda government’s strategy on infrastructure, the private sectors involvement has been minimal in most areas (Price Water House Coopers 2000). This is an issue that needs to be looked into.This research will be looked at housing and its associated complementary infrastructure like roads, water and sewerage facilities in Kampala City, provided and maintained by the local government, or influencing infrastructure provided by the local authorities. It will try to determine:1. How urban physical infrastructure can be efficiently provided and maintained in developing countries with their limitations, in a manner that will lead to sustainable development.2. How to integrate urban infrastructure planning and provision to avoid the inefficient use of scarce resourcesIt will mainly focus on roads and other associated services, like storm water drains, pedestrian pavements and street lights. In particular, it will try to address the following research questions:- Can urban road infrastructure be provided appropriately in a manner that matches the increasing urbanization?- Can Kampala’s road infrastructure providers do more to improve service delivery, even within current constraints they face?- Can the involvement of the private sector, taking advantage of their finances and management expertise, help infrastructure providers to improve their service delivery?- Is there an enabling policy environment aimed at ensuring that the road infrastructure is efficiently provided?- Can innovation and intermediate technology help improve service delivery?The methodology for the research will include the following:- Literature reviews of national and local government policies e.g. on decentralization, infrastructure provision and management, the planning and management policies of the infrastructure providers, good practice, etc. - Case studies in developing countries and the developed world. Comparisons will be made to Dar-es-Salaam, Nairobi, Botswana and Peru. There are cases of some Community Based Organisations in some countries like the Karengata association in Nairobi that is trying to manage their own infrastructure. In Kampala, there are a few examples of residents of particular areas like Muyenga, running out of patience with the local authorities, and providing their own road infrastructure.- In the developed world, Cites in Sweden and the United Kingdom will be selected to see what can be learnt from how they provide and maintain their infrastructure. - Comparisons will be made between Kampala and other African cities, which have better functioning systems of management, like CapeTown.- A pilot study will be undertaken before the main fieldwork is undertaken- Key Person Interviews of technocrats in local government and in public infrastructure corporations, representatives of Non Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) and Community Based Organisations (CBO’s), and the private sector. These will include:- Government ministers like the Ministers of Works, Housing and Communication, and the Minister of Local Government in Uganda, - 0n policy issues.- Representatives of donor organizations involved in infrastructure provision – on policy issues.- Town clerks of Kampala city and some other selected cities, and city managers- Chief planners - on what is currently being done, problems faced, challenges, - City engineers- on what is currently being done, problems faced, challenges, - The main founders of CBO’s involved in some form of infrastructure planning and management e.g. the chairman local council 1 around Muyenga in Kampala, Karen and Lanagata in Nairobi – on why they had to provide and manage their own infrastructure, their results and challenges- Representatives of the private sector e.g. key business organizations, and the general public - on their views, to determine if they may be interested in participating, and if so how. - Systematic Observations, taking photographs and an analysis of aerial photographs, to see what is currently being done and to determine if it is being done in the best way.