Many environmental problems of today are directly related to individuals’ every day behaviour. In this study three environmentally significant behaviours were compared; recycling of household waste, personal car use, and purchase of eco-labeled products. The aim was to investigate the effects of environmental concern and gender on problem awareness, personal norm, societal norm, social norm, and willingness to change the behaviour in an environmentally friendly direction and to compare the behaviours with regard to these factors. The aim was also to study to what extent willingness to change behaviours could be predicted from environmental concern, problem awareness, personal norm, societal norm, and social norm. Data was collected through a questionnaire mailed to 4000 randomly selected citizens in Sweden. The response rate was 31 %. Respondents with access to a car in the household and a drivers licence were selected which resulted in 957 respondents. Environmental concern was assessed with The New Ecological Paradigm scale (NEP). Problem awareness was measured as the global, local, and personal threat posed by not recycled waste, air pollution from private car use, and consumption of non eco-labeled products. Personal norm was assessed as the perceived moral obligation to recycle more, reduce personal car use, and purchase more eco-labeled products. Societal and social norms were measured as perceived expectations from the society and from close important others to recycle more, use the car less, and buy more eco-labeled products. Finally, willingness to change behaviours in an environmentally friendly direction was measured.The results showed that car use was seen as a larger threat than waste and consumption of non eco-labeled products. However, the moral obligation to change behaviour was strongest for recycling compared to car use and consumption. Both societal and social norm were stronger for recycling than for car use and consumption, and the willingness to change behaviour was strongest for recycling and least strong for car use. Respondents high on the NEP scale showed higher problem awareness, stronger personal norm, stronger societal norm, and a higher willingness to change than respondents low on NEP. Women showed higher problem awareness, stronger personal norm, stronger societal norm and a higher willingness to change than men. Multiple regression analyses showed that problem awareness, personal norm, societal norm, and social norm explained between 40 and 50 % of the variance in willingness to change for the three behaviours and that perceived moral obligation to change was the most important factor. The results of this study show that problem awareness is not enough to change individuals’ behaviour in an environmentally friendly direction. Problem awareness was highest for car use but the willingness to change behaviour was lowest for car use. Other factors such as environmental concern, societal and social norms, and especially personal norm are important.