Urban agriculture has become a dominant phenomenon in many cities and urban centres in the less developed countries, especially in Africa. In Kampala, it is characterized by the growing of crops in the open spaces of the urban centres and rearing of animals in and around homes. Urban agriculture is prohibited by the current town planning byelaws. Nevertheless, efforts by the authorities to ban urban agriculture in the city have met with resistance and the practice has persisted. This paper seeks to explain why urban agriculture has continued to persist in urban centers, particularly in Kampala and its effects on physical planning. The paper attempts to evaluate the benefit and effects got from urban agriculture by the people who practice it, as well as the environmental problems that the practice causes. The paper analyses the role played by women in urban agriculture and its effect on the socio-cultural spectrum in Kawempe Division where the study was conducted. Recommendations are made for the sustainable integration of urban agriculture in the urban setting of Kampala as a tropical city in a low-income economy.