Aims & Objectives: Local endorsement of environmental policies is a key issue in environmental agenda. In this paper, assumptions from social and environmental psychology are used to predict support for environmental policies in the biodiversity and fresh-water conservation domains in Italy. An experimental study (study 1) tested the moderating effect of group identity salience on support for the institution of protected areas, and a field study (study 2) assessed the role of identification with the local community and Social Value Orientation (SVO) in predicting fresh-water use and conservation during water scarcity conditions.Context & background literature: Identity processes are a major driver of human perceptions, motivation and behavior. Research in social and environmental psychology showed how social and place-related identity can orient people’s behaviors in several environmentally relevant domains, such as: ecological behaviors (Uzzell, Pol & Badenas, 2002); support for biodiversity conservation policies (Carrus, Bonaiuto & Bonnes, 2005); cooperation in natural resource dilemmas (Van Vugt, 2001; 2002).Method of inquiry or argument: Study 1. Two scenarios describing the institution of a natural park proposed either by a national or by a regional authority were set up. Participants (N = 180) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions of identity salience, using a self-definition task (Haslam et al., 1999): 1) personal; 2) regional; 3) national identity salient. Each participant evaluated both scenarios. A 2-way interaction between “identity salience” and “authority localization” in shaping support for the parks described in the scenarios was predicted.Study 2. 758 residents and vacationers of the Elba Island completed a self-reported questionnaire measuring local identification, SVO, and fresh-water conservation behaviors, during Summer and Easter time. Basing on findings from the social Social Dilemmas literature, it was expected that both local identification and SVO should affect people’s degree of cooperation in conserving fresh-water resources.Findings & Conclusions: Results confirmed the hypotheses for both studies. In study 1, subjects in the “regional identity salient” condition expressed higher support for the park proposed by a regional authority, while subjects in the “national identity salient” condition expressed higher support for the park proposed by a national authority. In study 2, the highest levels of voluntary cooperation to conserve fresh-water emerged among prosocial persons with high local identity, while the lowest levels emerged among proself persons with low local identity. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.