Aims & Objectives: In the context of both resource conservation and pollution management, as imperatives for sustainable development, a better understanding of the factors involved in people's decisions to recycle their domestic waste is crucial. This is even more so since it is known that the level of concern with the environment is usually higher than the level of actual involvement with environmentally relevant behaviors. This can be taken as a indication that decision making in this domain is happening in a dilemmatic context - the ideas that circulate through society regarding what is best for our future in what concerns waste management are various and contradictory, thus implying that we face dilemmas of choice when considering recycling. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to examine how ambivalence impacts upon the attitudes, intentions and pro-ecological behaviors of the private sphere, since it is now well known from previous research in other areas that attitudinal ambivalence plays an important role as a moderator of the links between attitude and intention and intention and behavior. Context & background literature: More specifically, we studied a particular component of domestic waste recycling - the separation and deposition of metal cans, a material for which the deposition rates were low in our country. Conducted by resorting to the Theory of Planned Behavior, we explored whether a set of both distal and proximal predictors of attitudes, intentions and self-reported behaviors showed the same predictive capacity when two groups of respondents with high and low levels of ambivalence (as assessed with a direct measure) were compared. Some of the distal and proximal predictors try to tap the contradictory nature of beliefs regarding environmental protection, recycling of domestic waste and of metal cans. Another of the predictors employed - personal identity - was recently added to the theory of Reasoned Action, and still little is known of the role it plays in the area of ecological behaviors.Method of inquiry: A sample of 339 residents in the two main Portuguese cities answered a questionnaire containing questions developed from three previous focus groups and the literature review.Findings & Conclusions: Results show that for the high ambivalence group proximal beliefs play a more important role, as compared to the low ambivalence group, and that personal identity plays a relevant role in both groups. The conclusions discuss the importance of pursuing the study of ambivalence and contradiction when analyzing decision making regarding environmentally relevant behaviors.