Car use causes severe environmental problems. Different travel demand management (TDM) measures aim to change travel behavior toward more sustainable travel. The aim in this study was to identify factors important for car users’ acceptability of TDM measures. In a proposed model, the acceptability of specific TDM measures is explained by a hierarchical set of beliefs. First, pro-environmental orientation and problem awareness are related to a personal norm, which in turn is associated with willingness to reduce car use. Second, willingness to reduce car use is linked to beliefs about to what extent a specific TDM measure is perceived to influence freedom to choose travel mode, own reduction of car use, effectiveness, fairness, and subsequently acceptability. In this study, factors influencing the acceptability of three different TDM measures were analyzed; an information campaign, raised tax on fuel, and improved public transport.Data was collected through a mail survey to 4000 randomly selected citizens in Sweden and the response rate was 31 percent. Pro-environmental orientation was assessed with the New Ecological Paradigm scale (NEP). Problem awareness was measured as perceived global, local, and personal threat of air pollution from private car use. Personal norm was assessed as the perceived moral obligation to reduce personal car use. In addition, willingness to reduce car use was measured. The TDM measures were described as short scenarios. In relation to each TDM measure, the respondents evaluated to what extent the measures were perceived to influence their freedom to choose travel mode, how much they would reduce car use and, as a measure of effectiveness, how much they thought other car users would reduce their car use if the measures were implemented. In addition, the respondents stated to what extent they perceived the measures to be fair or unfair, and as a measure of acceptability, to what extent they were in favor or against the TDM measures. The proposed model was first tested and modified in a randomly selected sub-sample (N = 462) for the three TDM measures, then the modified models were validated in the remaining sample (N = 460). After minor modifications, the proposed model was supported. Moral and fairness concerns were found to be specifically important for the acceptability of raised tax on fuel, while freedom aspects were of importance for the acceptability of improved public transport. The importance of various factors for the acceptability of different TDM measures may be used when designing measures that are perceived acceptable by car users. In forthcoming studies, factors important for the acceptability of different economic as well as regulatory and voluntary TDM measures ought to be studied within a theoretical context. In addition, it is important to further examine respondents’ perceptions of a fair TDM measure.