Involuntary resettlement is an important problem that is unavoidable in certain engineering projects and must be properly handled. Approximately half of the rural villages that have been subject to involuntary resettlement in China have found poverty to be the primary risk they faced during the migration process. The poverty risk that accompanies involuntary resettlement has become a focus of concern for the Chinese government, and academic circles are carrying out in-depth explorations of this issue. Articles dealing with this matter take as their point of departure the characteristics of resettlement-related risk faced by villagers, differentiating between aspects of poverty risk such as economic, political, social, and environmental risks and analyzing the categories of poverty, such as absolute and relative poverty, narrowly and broadly defined poverty, and primary poverty (yuansheng pinkun) as opposed to secondary poverty (cisheng pinkun). They treat subjective and objective causes of poverty, including the migrants’ cultural gaps, gaps in psychological predisposition, loss of material needed for production and life, a weakened economic base, difficulties in settling in, unreasonable patterns of resource allocation, and so on. They further propose minimizing migration to the greatest extent possible, improving the abilities of those resettling as well as the opportunities offered to them, devising plans for resettlement that are really feasible, including antipoverty measures as integral parts of these plans while making sure to apply antipoverty policies that ensure that conditions among the resettlers for living and for production are no worse after the move than before.