One of the main challenges facing Egypt today is how to balance the needs of development with the conservation of its biodiversity. The Government of Egypt is conscious of the value of biodiversity resources and their importance for the future well being of the country. As part of the national commitment to biodiversity conservation, Egypt ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994.Over the past decade Egypt has made great strides towards the sustainable management of its biodiversity resources. The challenges facing nature conservation in Egypt are numerous. Ensuring sustainable self-financing for biodiversity conservation is a critical step which should be realized.Protected areas have been the backbone and the main instrument for the implementation of nature conservation action in Egypt over the past three decades. A National System Plan for Protected Areas was developed with the aim of protecting a representative sample of all of the nation’s natural habitats and most important biodiversity hotspots. The plan proposed a network of protected areas of 180,000 km², or about 18% of the total land area of Egypt. The recommendations of this plan have being adopted and implemented, and have been integrated into national strategies and plans. The state of the art management tools have been applied in managing protected areas, including zoning, patrolling, moorings, law enforcement, monitoring and research, and evolution. The social-economic dimension and the integration of local communities have emerged as issues of high priority in the management of protected areas in Egypt.Hunting and harvest management has been given high priority in Egypt. The assessment of conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources during the least few years has shown that measures taken (e.g. habitat and species rehabilitation) have resulted in reasonable increase in the number of target species and in improving their habitats. However, the situation outside Protected Areas is still unregulated for the most part. Building a knowledge base of the biodiversity resources, including both species and habitats is essential for meaningful and effective planning. Taxonomic knowledge of our biodiversity is still modest. Actions in line with the Global Taxonomic Initiative include the documentation of local collections, and the establishment of a national taxonomic database, with more that 300,000 records. Invasive species are the second leading cause of biodiversity loss world wide. A total of 49 invasive species have been identified in Egypt. Innovative approaches were applied, such as community-based management of some invasive species (e.g. Prosopis juliflora). However, existing capacities and legislation are still very limited. NCS recently performed a management effectiveness evaluation of protected areas, which has shown that the protected areas system has good representation of habitats with high biological, economical and social values. However, management effectiveness has been hampered by a highly centralized NCS structure, lacking well-defined policies and limited resources. Limited capacity is a root cause contributing to biodiversity loss in Egypt. Capacity deficiencies in biodiversity conservation and management are found in all sectors and fields. In response, training needs survey and strategy was prepared.Immediate actions taken included; institutional reform of NCS into an autonomous authority and a policy framework for managing protected areas. Communication, Education and Public Awareness Strategy and Action Plan (CEPA) was prepared, followed by updating the existing Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) in Egypt, preparing numerous presentations to train managers and public, and participation in many conferences and meetings related to biodiversity conservation.